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chem 202 chemistry behind baking cake

Please add the role of acidity which is adding lemon in here in rising a cake. I have found a resource for that which explain the acidity role in baking a cake, please read and add it into chemistry behind the cake and conclusion part.

The resource link :…

Acidic ingredients play an important role in cake baking. They add and enhance flavors as well as contribute to leavening and tenderization of cakes. Batter acidity can come from a wide variety of sources including vinegar, lemon juice, chocolate, buttermilk, coffee, brown sugar, fruits and vegetables to name a few. While acid is most definitely a baker’s friend, it can also be a source of frustration if it interferes with the molecular integrity of a cake. To gain a better grasp on acid ingredients, I decided to take a look at how increasing the acidity of a cake recipe affected the final outcome. What surprised me was that when you added the acid to your batter seemed more important than how much acid was added. Let’s take a look at what I discovered along the way.

Acids in Baking - how acidic ingredients like lemon, chocolate and buttermilk affect a cake recipe | by Summer Stone for

Before we dive into cake experimentation, it helps to know what acids are and how they play a role in baking chemistry. Acidic ingredients are those which give off hydrogen ions (H+) when they are dissolved in water. These newly released hydrogen ions are now free to interact with other molecules in solution. Here are the major alterations to baked goods caused by acid:

1. Protein alteration- Hydrogen ions disrupt the bonds that keep proteins folded into a specific shape and cause them to unravel. This undoing can beneficially tenderize or, in excess, cause problems with the structure of the cake.

2. Starch modification- Acids cause starches to breakdown and gel at a lower temperature. This can cause cake to set more quickly but with less structural support.

3. Browning troubles- Acidic ingredients interfere with the reactions that cause browning in baked foods. The resulting cakes are paler than their alkaline counterpart.

Alkaline/basic ingredients readily accept free-floating hydrogen ions and in effect neutralize acids by chemically reacting with the hydrogen they provide. Baking soda is an example of an alkaline ingredient. When baking soda reacts with an acid such as lemon juice or buttermilk the neutralizing reaction releases carbon dioxide as a byproduct. This carbon dioxide contributes to leavening in baked goods. Baking soda’s alkalinity can also mediate the detrimental effects of acidic ingredients and minimize excessively sour flavors.

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